Relationship of Musical Intelligence and L2 Proficiency to Iranian EFL Learners’ Perception of Segmentals

Dr. Zohre Gooniband Shooshtari & Afshin Khademi,

Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran

Inspired by the revolutionary concept of Multiple Intelligences (MI) proposed by Gardner (2011), the present study aimed at investigating the relationship of musical intelligence as a subcomponent of the MI framework and L2 proficiency to Iranian EFL learners’ perception of English segmentals. An attempt was also made to determine the strongest predictor of the perception of English vowels and consonants. The participants of this study were 80 male Iranian EFL learners aged 14 to 19 (M= 16.5) selected from Iran Language Institute (ILI) of Dezful branch. Data were collected via a placement test, an MI questionnaire and a perception of spoken English test. The analysis of the data through standard multiple regression revealed that although both musical intelligence and L2 proficiency are related to the perception of segmentals, only L2 proficiency is a strong predictor of success in perceiving vowels, whereas the perception of English consonants appears to be determined by the learner’s knowledge of Persian consonants. Findings highlight the importance of not only L2 proficiency but also L1 phonological system in the perception of L2 segmentals.

 

The above abstract is part of the article which was accepted at The Third International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR)  & The Fifth National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 31 January-1February 2019 , Iran-Ahwaz.

Word Order as a Stylistic Marker in Selected Poems of Wordswirh

Dr. Shaima’ Abdul Hussein al-Mi’mar,

University of Karbala, Iraq

The present study is concerned with Wordsworth’s poetic language in respect to word order deviations, and violations of the basic conventional system in English syntax. It endeavors to show why and how Wordsworth manipulates language in his poems and how such manipulation differs from one poem to another. Word order is one important aspect of style in general; however, it is all the more important in poetry style, since the poetic constraints of rhyme and rhythm require the poet to make for the necessary changes in word order of his poems so that rhythm is obtained. The question is how far does Wordsworth resort to changes in word order in the composition of his poems? Another relevant question in this respect is whether the peculiarities in word order manifested in the poems of this Romantic poet can serve as a differentiating stylistic marker. The study aims at: 1. Conducting a theoretical study of English word order to establish a norm. 2. Analysing a representative random samples of the poems of Wordsworth to establish types of deviations in their word order. 3. Conducting a comparative study based on the results of the analysis as carried out above. 4. Drawing relevant conclusions concerning the functionality of word order as a stylistic marker in the data. A representative sample of the poems composed by the studied poet will be selected and analysed in terms of the pecularities in their word order depending on Quirk et al (1985). The results of this analysis will be tabulated with statistical means. Then a comparative analysis is carried out between the characteristics of the word order in the data. In case this comparative analysis yields significant differences, this would testify to the validity of the hypothesis.

 

The above abstract is part of the article which was accepted at The Third International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR)  & The Fifth National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 31 January-1February 2019 , Iran-Ahwaz.

An Analysis of the Conflict of Pashto and Dari Languages of Afghanistan

Dr. Muhammad Ali,

University of Peshawar, Pakistan

Afghanistan is a multi-cultural and multi-lingual country. According to world languages database (Ethnologue) there are forty one languages in Afghanistan. In article sixteen of the constitution of Afghanistan, Pashto and Dari have been declared as official languages of Afghanistan. Before the declaration of Pashto as official language, Persian was official language of Afghanistan. Persian was not considered a language of a particular ethnic group rather it was considered a language of culture and esteem. Even the Pashtun aristocracy considered Persian as a language of culture. For the first time Zahir Shah declared Pashto as official language with Persian in 1936. Later on it was confirmed in the constitution of 1964. For the first time officially, the word ‘Dari’ was used for the Persian language (dialect) of Afghanistan in the constitution of 1964. Although Pashto and Dari both are official languages of Afghanistan but they are unequal partners in many regards. Firstly, Pashto is a language of the identity of a particular ethnic group i.e. Pashtuns but Dari is not the language of a particular ethnic group but many ethnic groups speak Dari as their first language. Secondly, Speakers of Pashto as their first language have a better command on Dari as their second language while those who speak Dari as their first language don’t have full command on Pashto language. Thirdly, both of the languages are different with regard to their degree of standardization. Dari has a highly standardized and sophisticated official style while Pashto is still lacking a unified orthography. Fourthly, Speaking Dari in rural areas is considered as a symbol of modernity but Pashto doesn’t have such an attribute. Fifthly, Pashto has only lexical influence on Dari while Dari has influenced Pashto not only lexically but also phonologically. Last but not the least both of the languages have unequal partners that are out of Afghanistan. On the one side Dari has a partner like Iran, where Persian is an official language which has influenced and is influencing Dari to its maximum level. On the other side Pashto is a regional language in Pakistan but it has no official status. All these mentioned and other factors show an ethnic and linguistic consciousness in Afghanistan. This article particularly discovers the implications and prospects of the conflict of Pashto and Dari languages of Afghanistan. This article will also describe status, planning and policies regarding Dari and Pashto languages in Afghanistan.

 

The above abstract is part of the article which was accepted at The Third International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR)  & The Fifth National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 31 January-1February 2019 , Iran-Ahwaz.

Selected Proverbs in Arabic and Pashto Languages: A Comparative Study

Dr. Shams Ul Hussain & Dr. Ahmad Hassan,

Women University, Pakistan

Proverbs in every language is to be counted as a summary of up and downs of the intellectuals’ lives. Whenever, there happens an event, an intellectual personality quotes a sentence in this regard which is repeated in another event similar to it and so, it shapes a proverb. Then, in light of these quotations other people make their lives sprinkling light to avoid them from setbacks. The proverbs are always quoted with exact words, retaining the essence, even it clashes with the burning event syntactically or grammatically. As literature is the echo of life, therefore, proverbs of every language is probably similar to other languages even in words, style, events and structure. Similarly, similarities in Pashto and Arabic phrases are common, which need comparative analysis to bring speakers of both the languages closer to each other and make them know the standards of each other’s intellectuals. As Arabs and Pashtuns have close civilizational, cultural and moral similarities which reflect in their conversations and in the proverbs in particular. This article comparatively analyzes selected proverbs from both the languages, by pointing out its usage and some other equivalent proverbs. In conclusion, raising more options for further research have been mentioned.

 

The above abstract is part of the article which was accepted at The Third International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR)  & The Fifth National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 31 January-1February 2019 , Iran-Ahwaz.

On the Relationship between Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivation and L2 Speaking Skill: A Case of Iranian Female and Male High School EFL Learners

Dr. Ali Roohani & Gholamreza Salehpour,

Shahrekord University, Iran

One of the most important affective variables which cannot be ignored in language learning is motivation. Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation are considered to be one of the most powerful dimensions of the construct of motivation. Moreover, men and women may have different motivations towards foreign language learning. Considering the students’ diverse abilities and interest in English speaking skills, this study aimed at the investigating the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic type of motivation and L2 speaking skill among male and female high school learners of English in Iran. To This end, 49 male and female EFL students from two state high schools in central Iran were selected nonrandomly, and their intrinsic/extrinsic degree of motivation and L2 (English) speaking skill were measured through Wang’s (2017) questionnaire on motivation and IELTS speaking scale, respectively. Also, qualitative data were gathered for triangulation purposes from semi-structured interviews with 10 volunteer participants. The results demonstrated that female students were more intrinsically motivated whereas male students were more extrinsically motivated. Moreover, correlation confidents revealed that as the level of intrinsic motivation in the females and extrinsic motivation in the males increased, their speaking ability ratings increased. The findings can shed more light on the construct of motivation in EFL learning and help EFL teachers in dealing with different EFL learners in their classes.

 

The above abstract is part of the article which was accepted at The Third International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR)  & The Fifth National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 31 January-1February 2019 , Iran-Ahwaz.

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