An Overview of Triangulation and its Effect on Language Assessment

Dr. Farnaz Sahebkheir,

Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran

Triangulation is defined as using more than one method of data collection and analysis when studying a social phenomenon so as to seek convergence and corroboration between the results obtained from different methods, therefore, eliminating the bias inherent in the use of a single method (Denzin, 2012). Moreover, he believes triangulation originally refers to the use of multiple forms of qualitative research methods, not the combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. Triangulation is a tool or a strategy for validation; triangulation is an alternative to validation, reflecting and it is an attempt to secure understanding of the phenomenon which was under study. Through triangulation of qualitative and quantitative research methods one can reach a complementarity. Since different data types and analysis are appropriate for different research questions and processes. In this way, quantitative and qualitative results may be used to interpret different aspects of the phenomenon. The basic logic for complementarity relies on viewing social phenomena as multi-layered.  This complementarity is best achieved by performing each method interactively/interdependently and concurrently, to focus on all possible complexity of the phenomena under study. Furthermore, it seems that teachers for achieving a correct criteria for assessing students’ performance should use mixed approaches method or triangulation of qualitative and quantitative data assessment for reaching a correct answer in assessing and strengthening the research.

 

The above abstract is part of the article which was accepted at The Third International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR)  & The Fifth National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 31 January-1February 2019 , Iran-Ahwaz.

The Effect of Using Metatalk Activity on Grammar Learning of Iranian Advanced EFL Learners

Dr. Farnaz Sahebkheir,

Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran

The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of metatalk activity on Iranian Advanced EFL Learners' knowledge of passive tenses. 60 advanced level institute learners who participated in this study, were randomly selected via a language proficiency test (TOEFL). Those who got ±1SD in the test were chosen. They were randomly assigned into two experimental and control groups with 20 participants in every group. An English grammar test related to the usage of passive tenses was administered to both groups in the pre and post-tests. Treatment sessions lasted for 8 sessions but with different methodologies. Teacher in both groups explained about different passive tenses in every treatment sessions. However, learners in the experimental group were treated with metatalk activity and they tried to complete exercises collaboratively with their peers and teachers. They have to complete a dictogloss task with the help of their peers due to focus on learning passive verb tenses. While the control group did not received dictogloss as a metatalk activity and completed the exercises at home and the next session checked the answers. A posttest of grammar was then administered to both groups. The data of the study were analyzed using the independent samples t-test to compare the means of grammar knowledge in both groups. The results revealed that Iranian EFL learners in the experimental group received higher score in the grammar test after being treated with metatalk activity for 8 sessions. It can be conclude that metatalk is an effective method for teaching grammatical knowledge and teachers can use it in their classes.

 

The above abstract is part of the article which was accepted at The Third International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR)  & The Fifth National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 31 January-1February 2019 , Iran-Ahwaz.

Teachers’ Perception of WTC Encouraging Strategies: Their Class Practices, learners’ Interaction and WTC

Masoud Bahraini & Dr. Maryam Niami,

Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University & Parand branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran

Inappropriate strategies used by teachers based on erroneous perceptions or diagnosis may decrease learners’ Willingness To Communicate (WTC) rather than strengthen it. This study aimed to investigate teachers’ perception of willingness to communicate encouraging strategies with observing their practices during the class, learners’ interactions and the amount of their WTC. The present study is an experimental research with comparative method adopting a qualitative experimental design with supplementary quantitative analyses. Five Iranian EFL teachers and 31 students from three private language institutes in Tehran participated randomly in this study. The data were collected through questionnaires and observation. The teachers’ and learners’ behaviors were observed by utilizing two checklists. The analysis of data was performed through independent One Samples t-test and Pearson correlations. Finally, it was concluded that WTC of Iranian EFL learners was more effective under the supervision of high-level teachers’ perception of WTC encouraging strategies compared with that of low-level teachers. In teachers’ perception of WTC and their actual practices, correlation between high-level teachers and high-level learners and also, between low-level teachers and low-level learners had a positive linear relationship. It is assumed that the actual learners’ interaction was more effective in the high-level learners’ group.

 

The above abstract is part of the article which was accepted at The Third International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR)  & The Fifth National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 31 January-1February 2019 , Iran-Ahwaz.

Work and Play: A Postcolonial Reading of James Joyce’s “Araby”

Dr. Sayyed Rahim Moosavinia & Morteza Shahrakzadeh,

Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran

Jim LeBlanc in his “All Work, No Play: The Refusal of Freedom in ‘Araby’,” gives a superb existentialist reading of the story, but the naïve conclusion therein persuaded this postcolonial reading of the story. In this study LeBlanc’s article is considered as the point of departure, and the discussion, although intermittently digressed, revolves around his reading of the story. To complete the discussion herein, the notions of work and play, the objective correlative in the story, and historical and textual allusions are incorporated to show the postcolonial elements of the work. Then, both discussions, LeBlanc’s and the present discussion, converge in conclusion section. Finally, this study achieves that the boy’s epiphany is not as superficial as that LeBlanc has concluded, but that it is of a greater value and for a greater good.

The above abstract is part of the article which was accepted at The Third International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR)  & The Fifth National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 31 January-1February 2019 , Iran-Ahwaz.

Back to Structuralism: Joseph Conrad’s Youth in the Mirror of Gérard Genette’s Narratology

Dr. Susan Poursanati,

Allameh Tabataba’i University, Iran

Narratology is a literary science which deals with the systematic study of the narratives. The aim of this science is to reveal the underlying structures and relations that are involved in the creation of a story and its meaning. To fulfill this objective, narratology’s theoreticians have introduced and defined a series of language-based rules which all narratives written in all languages share. Thus, in practice, a narratological reading shows the ways through which the authors apply these structural rules to their texts. Genette, the French structuralist, has introduced five narrative categories in his book, Narrative Discourse; these categories include Order, Duration, Frequency, Mood, and Voice. The present paper addresses Genette’s narrative categories in Joseph Conrad’s short story, Youth, to manifest the structural nuances in this narrative and to help the readers, in general, and the students of English Literature, in particular, to touch upon the style of Conrad’s writing.

 

The above abstract is part of the article which was accepted at The Third International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR)  & The Fifth National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 31 January-1February 2019 , Iran-Ahwaz.

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