The Different Speaking Subject: A Feminist Critical Study on Zoya Pirzad’s I Will Turn off the Lights

Anis Kalantari & Dr. Nahid Mohammadi,

Alzahra University, Iran

 

This research aims at the feminist reading of Iranian novel “I Will Turn off the Lights” by Zoya Pirzad using the theories of modern feminism. Claris Iyvazian, the Iranian-Armenian protagonist of the novel is used as a case study of Luce Irigaray’s psychoanalysis and her theory of sexual difference. Also, in this study, the relationship of Claris with other women and the society will be studied based on the psychoanalysis of Julia Kristeva and her theory of the speaking subjectivity. The heroin, whose female role is characterized through the traits of the opposite gender, will be studied as the different speaking subject. Claris, the discordant protagonist, uses a different feminine language to struggle for the championship of her individuality. Due to Claris’s lost and despicable existence in her domestic life, Luce Irigaray’s theory of psychoanalysis is used as critique of the exclusion of women from socio-cultural integrations. In a society where a woman cannot have a position of her own, Claris has to assimilate to a male subject to gain her distinct subjectivity. Julia Kristeva’s theory of the split subjects used to show that the societal constraints create the system of division. The patriarchal society of the day ignores the position of women. Thus, Claris is always belittled by her husband. In the present research study, the authors aim at depicting the position of female subjects and their psychological issues in the Iranian society of 1960s.

 

The above abstract is part  of the article which was accepted at The Second International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR) & The Fourth National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 1-2 February 2018 , Iran-Ahwaz.

A Case-study of Two Persian Translations of Shakespeare’s King Lear

Anis Kalantari & Dr. Nahid Mohammadi,

Alzahra University, Iran

 

Literary translations undertake structural limitations in Target Language (TL). Literary texts are value-laden and heavily loaded with devices. This may lead to untranslatability of some devices due to the structure of Source Language (SL). The present study is going to touch upon the degree of translatability of the two major tropes (metaphor and Irony) in two Persian translations of the Renaissance tragedy, King Lear. The corpus of this study will shed light on the translatability of these major tropes alongside with the question how the translators have treated the literary devices in this play. It is an attempt to discuss the reflection of ideas by two well-known translators; first, Mahmoud Etemadzadeh (also known as Behazin); second, Alaeddin Pazargadi. Tropes, the figures of thought, function semantically and create changes in the meaning of the text. In this respect, the present paper will technically examine the translatability or untranslatability of tropes in TL. Then, we will manage to give the definition of the categorization of the tropes that have been already underscored by the authors. Therefore, we come to analyze the translatability of literary construction in TL. It will be determined that the translators have utilized a particular strategy (as expansion, omission, or paraphrase). Finally, it can be concluded that which translator has transferred the whole message while resorting the literary devices in TL.

 

The above abstract is part  of the article which was accepted at The Second International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR) & The Fourth National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 1-2 February 2018 , Iran-Ahwaz.

Analysis of Culture as an Important Factor in Language Teaching

Dr. Mahan Attar,

Farhangian University, Iran

 

Effective communication is more than synthetic structure, new vocabulary and expressions. It is important to help students understand that a variety of behaviors are possible in any particular language and culture. Developing cultural competence or the knowledge of conventions, customs, beliefs and systems of meaning is necessary, too. Exploring culturally appropriate behavior that may be perceived differently by members of speech community, enable students to find their own voices in interactions and communications.  Teachers can make an explicit topic of presenting cultural features in a nonjudgmental fashion, in relation to what being studied. Through applying effective techniques and methods of teaching and incorporating instructional strategies for teaching culture, a good teacher can enrich and inform the teaching content.  One of the more student centered approaches in teaching, which is very practical and flexible is task based teaching. According to Prabhue 1987, “tasks are activities that require learners to arrive at an outcome from given information through some process of thought, and which allows teachers to control and regulate that process.”  This article will explain some ideas of presenting culture as an important factor in task based teaching classes.

 

The above abstract is part  of the article which was accepted at The Second International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR) & The Fourth National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 1-2 February 2018 , Iran-Ahwaz.

Comparing the Concept of Evil in the Epic Tradition of Iran and England

Dr. Karim Loweimi Mutlaq, Farshad Seddiqi Nia & Pari Hayati,

Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran

 

The present article compares the representation of “Evil” in the heroic periods of Iran and England by analyzing the two epic poems of Shahnameh and Beowulf which reflect the traditions, customs, attitudes, and beliefs of the people before their conversion to Abrahamic religions. In both poems “Evil” is related to the creatures that threaten the people’s lives and their country. In Beowulf, evil concerns “non-human” beings; there are no human beings as their fellowmen’s enemies; no human tries to harm his fellow beings; and we deal with “absolute” good or evil. In Shahnameh, on the other hand, in addition to “non-human Evil” we can witness “human Evil” as well. Not only evil can be “human,” but also human beings turn to each other’s enemies and try to harm or destroy one another, even their countrymen. So, in Shahnameh, the concept of “Evil” is more complicated than its absolute counterpart in Beowulf. Beowulf is the result of Germanic heroic traditions, while Shahnameh is a product of Persian epic culture. Although like Beowulf, Shahnameh represents the heroic period of a country, Iran’s historical background and its precedence of religious beliefs have led to a more complex, multi-dimensional, and human representation of evil.

 

The above abstract is part  of the article which was accepted at The Second International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR) & The Fourth National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 1-2 February 2018 , Iran-Ahwaz.

Gender Representation in Junior Secondary English for Schools Prospect 3 Versus Prospect Plus 3 Textbooks

Mandani Zarei,

Shahrekord University, Iran

 

Textbooks may have a strong influence on learners’ attitudes, outlooks, and their choice of language in second/foreign language (L2) communication. The different methods which people resort to in communication may affect students’ viewpoints. This study was an attempt to examine potential areas of gender-bias in the representation of men and women in the English for Schools Prospect 3 versus Prospect Plus 3, an English language teaching (ELT) textbook developed by Khate Sefid Curriuculum Development Centre, which both of them are taught in the junior secondary schools of Iran. To evaluate these textbooks, content analysis was done in terms of gender-bias in dialogues, reading texts, instructions, exercises and illustrations. The frequency and percentages of names, nouns, pronouns and pictures attributed to each gender (i.e., males and females) were obtained and chi-square tests were carried out.  In general, names, pronouns and pictures attributed to males and females were not significantly different. But there was a significant difference regarding nouns by examining both stated textbooks. However, the number of common gender pronouns was proportionally constant in the preceding textbooks taught in junior high school.  Moreover, both textbooks included many gender-neutral pronouns not having any gender orientations. Findings showed that the Iranian prospect 3 and prospect +3 English textbooks did not incorporate into male-oriented and gender-biased features.

 

The above abstract is part  of the article which was accepted at The Second International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR) & The Fourth National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 1-2 February 2018 , Iran-Ahwaz.

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