From Foucault to Postcolonialism: New Outlook into the Middle East

Safa Almijbilee, Dr. Azra Ghandeharion(Corresponding Author) & Dr. Zohreh Taebi Noghondar,

Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

This research reviews Foucault’s idea about discourse and power, Said’s view about the Orient and Bhabha’s perception regarding stereotype. Benefitting from Foucault's ideologies, postcolonial theorists like Edward Said and Homi Bhabha illustrate how colonial discourse circulates. They insist that Western episteme on knowledge, science and understanding has empowered the Occident/ West to control and command the Orient/ East. Said’s insight toward Orientalism sheds light on how the occident represent and dominate the Orient politically, sociologically, militarily, ideologically, scientifically, and imaginatively in the past centuries whose effects are still prevalent. Bhabha builds on Said’s work linking Saidian and Foucauldian discursivity. This research illustrates how the discourse of marginalization is presented and how it shapes the postcolonial stereotype. The marginalization is portrayed by the colonial power over colonized nations. This research addresses one of the noticeable postcolonial issues: colonial discourse. It reveals that the representation of Middle Easterners is a continuation of Western accumulations of negative stereotypes and prejudices that are circulated for decades. It provides a detailed debate to describe postcolonial theory and colonial discourse.

 

The above abstract is part of the article which was accepted at The Third International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR)  & The Fifth National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 31 January-1February 2019 , Iran-Ahwaz.

An Evaluation of Iran’s Junior high School Old and New English Textbooks: English Writing in Focus

Dr. Reza Rezvani & Yalda Hooman,

Yasouj University & Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran

Language students have long been engaged in guided or controlled writing tasks to be able to express their ideas freely and meet their needs. More recently, however, such activities have been found rather ineffective particularly beyond the earliest stages. Current literature on writing pedagogy suggests that traditional writing instruction be complemented or integrated with more process-oriented activities in order to foster students’ writing ability along with their interest and creativity. The current study aimed to examine and compare how Iran’s old and newly developed official English textbooks for junior high school approach writing English. All writing-related activities in both series including three books each, that is, Right path to English 1-3 and Prospect 1-3 were content-analyzed qualitatively. Results indicated that in comparison to the old textbook series which exclusively guided writing ability development through isolated and controlled activities, new textbooks involved both product- and process-oriented tasks. In keeping with the current emphasis on the integrated instruction and the profound impact of reading on writing, new materials were found to be on the right path to promote students’ writing ability through accommodating more linked activities. A noticeable asset of the new series, lacking in the older one, is its incremental structure setting out the development from the establishment of sound-spelling correspondence. The paper discusses the finding and implications in detail in the context of Iran’s public education.

 

The above abstract is part of the article which was accepted at The Third International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR)  & The Fifth National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 31 January-1February 2019 , Iran-Ahwaz.

The Relationship between Iranian EFL Teachers' Empowerment and Burnout

Dr. Farrokhlagha Heidari(Assistant Professor of TEFL) & Shirin Rajabi (MA Student of TEFL),

Department of English Language and Literature, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran

The concepts of teachers' empowerment and burnout, as two important variables in the field of language teaching, have been proved to have considerable effect on teaching environment, students' achievement, and some other issues related to language teaching and learning. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between teachers' empowerment and their burnout and their relationship regarding gender. Moreover, another aim of this study was to examine which of the three components of burnout has the highest relationship with empowerment. To this end, 110 Iranian EFL teachers (44 males and 66 females), holding B.A. or M.A. degrees, with an age range of 20 to 45 years old from some language institutes in Bandar Abass and Zahedan participated in this study. The modified version of School Participant Empowerment Scale (Short & Rinehart, 1992) and Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (Maslach, Schaufeli & Leiter, 2001) were used to gather data. The results of the Spearman’s correlation and Fisher’s Z comparison revealed that there was no significant relationship between teachers’ empowerment and their burnout. All of the correlations between empowerment and components of burnout were statistically significant, albeit negative and reduced personal accomplishment had the highest correlation with empowerment. Moreover, there was no significant relationship between empowerment and burnout regarding gender. The study has some implications for EFL and language institute administrators to consider the effective characteristics of empowerment and burnout on their decision making processes and how to lower the symptoms of burnout in English language teachers.

 

The above abstract is part of the article which was accepted at The Third International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR)  & The Fifth National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 31 January-1February 2019 , Iran-Ahwaz.

The Repetition Patterns in Persian Language

Hassan Solouki,

Safir Language Academy, Iran

“Repetition is encountered in every language and affects all types of linguistic units” (Inkelas & Zoll, 2009, p. 1). This study, based on Tannen’s (2007) repetition model, was conducted to uncover forms and functions of repetition patterns used by Persian speakers, and to signify the linking repetitions used to repeat themselves in specific contexts. To answer the research questions, the number frequency of different form and function of repetitions was counted. To this goal, five different Persian speakers were non-randomly selected based on six criteria; afterwards, they were recorded, transcribed, translated, analyzed quantitatively/qualitatively and the final results were introduced. The findings of the study showed that out of 13 repetition forms in 58 topics within 2:33َ:26ً recordings, the participants used different repetition forms 129 times through their conversations. In addition, out of generally 18 linking repetition types, 57 idiosyncratic and common linking repetitions were extracted. Besides, it was found that the most and the least frequently used forms in line with functions were respectively Emphasis, and Exclamation, Gap-filling, Humor, Interrogation, and Wishing altogether. Likewise, the highest frequency within and across idiosyncratic and common linking repetitions was چیز ((some) thing) with its derivatives, and the least ones were merely the idiosyncratic words. The perspectives of the current research can provide sociolinguists with wider horizon for further replications in the realm of repetition in various linguistic aspects especially in Persian.

 

The above abstract is part of the article which was accepted at The Third International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR)  & The Fifth National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 31 January-1February 2019 , Iran-Ahwaz.

Cross Cultural Analysis of Greeting Gesture Patterns by Arabic and Persian Speaking Students in Academic Contexts and their Attitudes towards Learning English

Shahla Tavanapour & Dr. Azizeh Chalak,

Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran

Culture and language are inseparable, they have an intertwined relationship, and affect each other. Knowing different aspects of cultures and their comparisons are always interesting topics in EFL contexts. The present study was an attempt to compare greeting gesture patterns by Arabic and Persian speaking EFL students in academic contexts and their attitudes towards learning English. To this end, 60 students studying nursing at Islamic Azad University, Abadan Branch were selected based on available sampling. All of them were females and their ages ranged 20 to 30. A researcher-made checklist was used to investigate if there were any similarities or differences in greeting gesture patterns between the two cultures. Additionally, the Attitude and Motivational Test Battery (AMTB) was given to the participants to measure their attitudes toward learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL). The participants were required to answer all 30 items completely and honestly. The collected data were analyzed and frequencies and percentages of occurrence of each pattern were counted and tabulated. The results indicated that Arabic and Persian speaking EFL students behaved differently when they were greeting in academic contexts. Moreover, the participants showed positive attitudes towards learning English regarding cognitive, behavioral, and emotional aspects.  The findings of this study may help language developers, syllabus designers, and teachers to develop programs and creat books based on studentsʼ cultures and attitudes.

 

The above abstract is part of the article which was accepted at The Third International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR)  & The Fifth National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 31 January-1February 2019 , Iran-Ahwaz.

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