The Effects of Planning Time Condition and Task Type on Metacognitive Processes and Quantity of Iranian EFL Learners’ Task-Based Writing

Dr. Seyyed Mohammad Alavi (Tehran University, Iran) & Maryam Salarifar (Alborz University, Iran)

 

This paper investigates the effect of planning time condition (i.e., careful online planning, pressured online planning, and pre-task planning) and task type (i.e., information-exchange, and decision-making task) on temporal frequency of metacognitive processes (i.e., generating new ideas, elaborating new ideas, organizing new ideas, thinking of the writing structure, and thinking of language aspects of the task) and quantity of language production of EFL learners’ writing. Sixty MA students in Alborz University in Qazvin carried out two writing tasks. They were randomly assigned to three planning time conditions. While the participants in careful and pressured online planning condition had no time for planning, a limited amount of planning time was dedicated for pre-task planning group. The frequency of metacognitive processes was calculated based on the items selected on the retrospective questionnaire and quantity of production was based on the total number of words produced in the allocated time. Results indicated that planning time condition and task type significantly affect “generating new ideas”. Performing the information-exchange task, participants generated more new ideas in careful online planning condition. Concerning quantity, it was indicated that, although not considerably, more language was produced while the participants were writing in pre-task planning condition. The results imply that generation of new ideas as a cognitive process that leads to good writing, Ong (2013), is highly under the influence of planning time condition and task type, so the study suggests a closer examination of other factors (e.g. individual differences) concerning metacognitive processes in task-based writing.

 

 

The above abstract is part  of the article which was accepted at The First International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR) & The Third National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 2-3 February 2017 , Iran-Ahwaz.

The Effect of English Shadowing on EFL Adult Language Learners’ Supra-Segmental Acquisition

Jen-Yu Pai & Dr. Teng-lung Peng,

National Yunlin University of Science & Technology, Taiwan

 

While the relationship between the shadowing practice and listening acquisition in the field of second language learning has been widely probed, the effects of the shadowing practice on language learners’ supra-segmental acquisition is seldom paid attention in Taiwan. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the effects of the shadowing practice on EFL adult language learners’ supra-segmental acquisition through experimenting with a group of 39 adult participants, who were pursuing their bachelor’s or master’s degree in a technological university in central Taiwan. The data collected include the perception questionnaire, the pre- and post- tests, and in-depth individual interviews. Based on the quantitative data (questionnaire and pre- /post-tests) analyzed, the research findings suggest that after the shadowing practice, the participants indeed became more aware of their English speaking ability and proficiency, especially in terms of sentence stress and sentence linking. In conclusion, the participants made improvement in four evaluated aspects -- word stress, sentence stress, word linking, and sentence linking. In addition, based on the researcher’s in-depth interviews with 10 participants, the researcher offered some suggestions for both teachers and language learners who might be interested in the instruction and learning of the shadowing practice in the future.

 

The above abstract is part  of the article which was accepted at The First International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR) & The Third National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 2-3 February 2017 , Iran-Ahwaz.

Teacher’s Types of Questions in Inclusive Classroom: The Case of Mute Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Najme Pourjafarian, Seyyed Ali Hosseini & Dr. Seed Mehrpour,

Shiraz University, Iran

 

The aim of this study is to investigate the types of questions adults asked to children with autism spectrum disorder in inclusive classrooms and whether child’s characteristics (e.g. age) have any effects on the types of questions that adults asked during center-time. Voice recording of non-verbal children which ranged between 4 to 11 with autism spectrum disorder were coded based on the question categories adapted from the work of Massey et al.: management, low cognitive challenging, or cognitively challenging. Results indicated that management questions were asked more than less cognitively challenging questions. Cognitively challenging questions were completely missed from the teachers’ speeches in all the classrooms. Children with lower age had a greater likelihood of receiving less cognitively questions than higher age. The findings present a first step in identifying the questions directed at primary schoolers with autism spectrum disorder in inclusive classrooms.

 

 

The above abstract is part  of the article which was accepted at The First International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR) & The Third National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 2-3 February 2017 , Iran-Ahwaz.

Revisiting the Swedish Wordlist: How Long Should It Be?

Dr. Feda Negesse,

Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia

 

The Swadesh wordlist has been used for more than half a century for collecting data in quantitative and descriptive linguistics. This research compares the classification results of the 100 Swadesh wordlist with those of its subsets to determine if reducing the size of the wordlist impacts its effectiveness. In the comparison, the 100, 50 and 40 wordlists were used to compute lexical distances of 29 Cushitic and Semitic languages spoken in Ethiopia and neighbouring countries. Gabmap, a based application, was employed to compute the lexical distances and to divide the languages into related clusters. The study shows that the subsets are not as effective as the 100 wordlists in clustering languages into smaller subgroups but they are equally effective in dividing languages into bigger groups such as subfamilies. It is noted that the subsets may lead to an erroneous classification whereby unrelated languages by chance form a cluster which is not attested by a comparative study. The chance to get a wrong result is higher when the subsets are used to classify languages which are not closely related. Though a further study is still needed to settle the issues around the size of the Swadesh wordlist, this study indicates that the 50 and 40 wordlists cannot be recommended as reliable substitutes for the 100 wordlist under all circumstances.

 

The above abstract is part  of the article which was accepted at The First International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR) & The Third National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 2-3 February 2017 , Iran-Ahwaz.

Proposing an Alternative to Sonority: The Case of English Phonotactics

Dr. Paula Orzechowska,

Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland

 

This talk provides an analysis of initial and final consonant clusters in English. On the basis of empirically observed tendencies of distribution and co-occurrence of distinctive features in segments forming clusters, we propose a set of new phonotactic preferences which govern the word structure in English. These preferences are expressed by a set of parameters that pertain to the following dimensions: complexity, place of articulation, manner of articulation and voice. With help of statistical methods of Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis, the proposed parameters are assigned weight, which allows to illustrate that different features play a different role in initial and final clusters in English. This paper advocates the view that phonological features rather than segments as such determine phonotactics in a given language, while statistical methods allow us to determine the ranking of preferences. The analysis reveals the following set of phonotactic preferences established for initial clusters: sonorant C cluster-finally > 1 obstruent C in CC > voiced C cluster-finally > increasing sonority (where '>' means 'stronger than'). For the word-final context, we show that apart from the manner of articulation and voicing features, also the feature of place (coronal C cluster-initially) is relevant.

 

The above abstract is part  of the article which was accepted at The First International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR) & The Third National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 2-3 February 2017 , Iran-Ahwaz.

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